Prostate cancer is the name for cancers that form in the prostate gland, which is part of the male reproductive system. Abnormal cells can form a tumour in the prostate gland and spread throughout the body, commonly to the bones.…
What is testicular cancer?
Testicular cancer occurs when abnormal cells grow uncontrollably in the testicles, or testes. Testes are the oval-shaped organs, in the scrotum of a male's body, which produce the sperm and sex hormones.
Testicular cancer mainly affects men aged between 25-45 years. It is a potentially curable cancer, particularly if detected early.
The American Cancer Society's estimates for testicular cancer in the United States for 2018 are:
- About 9,310 new cases of testicular cancer diagnosed
- About 400 deaths from testicular cancer
The incidence rate of testicular cancer has been increasing in the United States and many other countries for several decades. The increase is mostly in seminomas (see below under Types heading - germ cells tumors). Experts have not been able to find reasons for this increase. Lately, the rate of increase has slowed.
Testicular cancer is not common; about 1 of every 250 males will develop testicular cancer at some point during their lifetime.
The average age at the time of diagnosis of testicular cancer is about 33. This is largely a disease of young and middle-aged men, but about 6% of cases occur in children and teens, and about 8% occur in men over the age of 55.
Because testicular cancer usually can be treated successfully, a man's lifetime risk of dying from this cancer is very low: about 1 in 5,000. If you would like to know more about survival statistics, see Testicular cancer survival rates.
The cause of testicular cancer, as with other cancers, is damage to cellular DNA. This damage results in uncontrolled cell growth, which leads to the formation of a tumor. A tumor can continue to grow and invade surrounding tissues, at which point it becomes a cancer. It can also spread to other areas of the body (metastasize). The exact cause for this cellular damage in the testes is not known.
The male reproductive system
The male reproductive system comprises certain key structures: testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and the penis.
There are generally two testes that are contained in the scrotum, a loose pouch of skin, which can contract and stretch to help keep a constant temperature for the testes. The left testis normally hangs lower than the right. The testes have two major functions - to produce sperm and male sex hormones. For the testes to function optimally, they need to be kept at a constant temperature. The testes are made up of several types of cells. Germ cells are the sperm-producing cells, Sertoli cells are the supporting cells, and Leydig cells are the hormone-producing cells.
The sperm migrate up through the epididymis, where they continue to mature. They are then delivered, via the vas deferens, to the seminal vesicles, which is where they are stored until time for ejaculation through the prostate and penis.
Risk factors for testicular cancer include:
- Undescended testes (cryptorchidism) - this increases the cancer risk, especially if it is not corrected by childhood;
- Family history - having a brother or father with testicular cancer;
- Genetic conditions such as Klinefelter's syndrome and Down syndrome can significantly increase the risk;
- Inflammation of the testes (orchitis) - a rare form of mumps affecting the testes, and;
- Ethnicity - the risk of testicular cancer is highest in Caucasian men.
There is no known link between testicular injury and cancer.
Testicular cancer can be categorized based upon the type of cell it originates from. Each of the cell types can develop into a cancer. It is important to distinguish between these different cell types, as the treatment and prognosis can differ accordingly. The types of testicular cancer include:
Germ cell tumors
Most seminomas occur in men mainly between the ages of 25 and 45 years. Rarely, there is also a slow-growing seminoma, which occurs mainly in older men, around the age of 65. They tend to grow and spread slower than non-seminomas. Some seminomas produce a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which can be measured by a blood test called a tumor marker (see below).
There are four main types of non-seminomas - teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma and yolk sac carcinomas (orchidoblastoma). These tend to occur in men between the ages of 15 and 35 years. Yolk sac carcinomas are the most common type of testicular cancer affecting children.
Non-seminomas also produce hormones that can be measured by tumor markers - embryonal carcinoma produces alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and HCG, choriocarcinoma produces HCG, and yolk sac carcinoma produces AFP. Commonly, non-seminomas are a mix of the different types. This usually does not change the general approach to treatment. In some cases, there can also be a mix of seminoma and non-seminoma cells, in which case it is referred to as a mixed germ cell tumor. These are generally treated as non-seminomas, as they share similar growth patterns and treatment responses.
A rare type of testicular cancer, stromal tumors, originate in the supportive and/or hormone-producing cells of the testes. The two types of stromal tumors are Sertoli cell and Leydig cell tumors. These are usually benign tumors, but can occasionally be cancerous.
Also known as carcinoma in situ. It refers to a non-invasive type of testicular cancer.
The cancer is only in the testes and can be of any size.
The cancer has spread to the nearby lymph nodes in the abdomen.
The cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes, such as those in the armpit.
The cancer has spread throughout the body to distant organs.
Signs and symptoms
The symptoms of testicular cancer include:
- A painless lump or swelling in a testicle;
- A heavy-feeling scrotum;
- A hard, rough-textured feeling of a testicle;
- Ache in the affected testicle, or lower abdomen, and;
- Enlargement or tenderness of the breast tissue.
Although most lumps found in the testicles are not cancerous, you should see your doctor if you notice any of the above symptoms.
Methods for diagnosis
Physical examination and medical history
Your doctor may take a thorough medical history and perform a physical exam. This would likely include examining the testes and the abdomen for any abnormalities.
Tumor marker test
Testicular cancers can produce specific hormones, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Blood tests, known as tumor markers, can measure these hormones, and if found to be elevated, can suggest the presence of testicular cancers. These tumor markers are produced by certain types of testicular cancers, but can also occur with other conditions, such as liver disease.
Scans can more accurately suggest the presence of testicular cancers. These include:
- Ultrasound, which uses sound waves to create an image of the testes and nearby structures;
- Computerized tomography (CT) scan, which uses X-rays to develop a 3D image of the body;
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is like a CT scan, but uses magnetism instead of X-rays, and;
- Positron emission tomography (PET), in which an injection with a radioactive label is administered, then images are captured using a nuclear medicine scanner. When combined with a CT scan, it produces more detailed internal images.
The surgical removal of the suspected testicle is the only accurate way of diagnosing testicular cancer. Unlikely other cancers, a biopsy of only a small sample of tissue is not appropriate, as it increases the likelihood of spreading the cancer elsewhere.
The removal of the testicle is generally performed only if your doctor is very suspicious that you may have a cancer, based on the above diagnostic tests.
Types of treatment
Surgery involves the removal of the affected testicle (orchidectomy). This is performed by a surgeon, generally under general anesthesia, in a hospital. An incision is made in the groin (medically known as inguinal orchidectomy), rather than directly through the scrotum, to prevent the inadvertent spread of the cancer. The whole testicle and the spermatic cord are removed through the groin. This is then sent to the laboratory for diagnosis. The surgical site is thoroughly rinsed with sterile solution, then the wound stitched up and a dressing applied.
If the cancer has not spread outside the testicle, then surgical removal of the testicle is sufficient. If the cancer has spread, then additional therapies, described below, may be needed.
Adjuvant therapy is given after surgery, with the aim of preventing the cancer from returning. It can take the form of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
Like adjuvant therapy, neoadjuvant therapy also uses one or more of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but is provided before surgery. This is not frequently used for testicular cancers.
Chemotherapy works by attacking cells, including cancer cells, and stopping their reproduction. Various medications are used, which can be administered intravenously or orally. They are often given in cycles, followed by rest periods, which help to reduce the toxic side effects of chemotherapy. Your doctor will monitor your dosage and treatment schedule to ensure an optimal therapeutic dosage is administered, with minimum side effects.
In this type of therapy, focused X-rays are applied to the area where the cancer is located. Radiotherapy is commonly used in addition to surgery and/or chemotherapy. It may be used to treat men with seminoma cancers, but not for non-seminoma cancers.
Some people diagnosed with cancer seek out complementary and alternative therapies. None of these alternative therapies have been proven to cure cancer, but some can help people feel better when used together with conventional medical treatment. It is important to discuss any alternative treatments with your doctor before starting them.
Treatment side effects
Side effects of treatment for testicular cancer can include the following:
- Sterility (infertility) due to chemotherapy treatment and erectile dysfunction due to radiation treatment;
- Nausea, vomiting and fatigue from chemotherapy. Whether or not the treatment makes you feel sick is not an indication of how well the treatment is working;
- Altered bowel habits - constipation or diarrhea;
- Joint and muscle pain can occur after a treatment session and can last a few days;
- Temporary hair loss from the head and body can result from chemotherapy. The hair will generally grow back after the treatment has ended, and;
- Tingling in the hands and feet - some chemotherapeutic agents can affect the nerves. It is important to tell your doctor if you develop these symptoms.
Advanced testicular cancer
The cancer can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. The cancer can then have a destructive effect on the affected organs.
Prognosis varies according to the type and stage of the cancer, but it is generally very good.
For men ages 15-44, it is the most commonly diagnosed cancer. The average age of diagnosis is 33, but 7% of cases are diagnosed in men 55 or older and 7% of cases are diagnosed in boys and adolescents.
For unknown reasons, the number of testicular cancer cases has increased for the past 40 years. However, death rates continue to slowly decline.
It is estimated that about 410 deaths from this disease will occur this year. These deaths are either from cancer that spread from the testicles to other parts of the body and could not be effectively treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or surgery or from complications from treatment.
The 5-year survival rate tells you what percent of men live at least 5 years after the cancer is found. Percent means how many out of 100. The 5-year survival rate for men with testicular cancer is 95%.
The survival rate is higher for men diagnosed with early-stage cancer and lower for men with later-stage cancer. For men with cancer that has not spread beyond the testicles, the survival rate is 99%. Approximately 68% of men are diagnosed at this stage.
For men with cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes in the back of the abdomen, called the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, the survival rate is about 96%. But, this depends on the size of the lymph nodes with cancer. For men with cancer that has spread outside the testicles to areas beyond the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, the survival rate is 73%. About 11% of testicular cancer is diagnosed at this stage.
It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for men with testicular cancer are an estimate. The estimate comes from annual data based on the number of men with this cancer in the United States. Also, experts measure the survival statistics every 5 years. So the estimate may not show the results of better diagnosis or treatment available for less than 5 years. People should talk with their doctor if they have questions about this information.
Testicular cancer cannot be prevented. Also, there are no routine screening tests for testicular cancer. Regular self-examination of the testes and getting acquainted with the way they normally feel may help you to detect any changes. However, self-examination has not conclusively been proven to detect cancers early or improve outcomes. If any abnormalities are detected, it is best to promptly see your doctor.
- Rajpert-De Meyts, E., Skakkebaek N.E., Toppari, J. Testicular cancer pathogenesis, diagnosis and endocrine aspects. [Updated 2013 Dec 17]. In: De Groot L.J., Beck-Peccoz, P., Chrousos, G, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA). Available from: link here
- Cancer survival and prevalence in Australia: period estimates from 1982 to 2010. Australian Government – Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Accessed 22 September 2014 from link here
- Cancer survival and prevalence in Australia: period estimates from 1982 to 2010 (full publication; 28 Aug 2012 edition) (AIHW) - DownloadAsset.aspx. Accessed 18 July 2014 from link here
- Testicular cancer. Accessed 18 July 2014 from link here
- What is testicular cancer? Accessed 18 July 2014 from link here
FAQ Frequently asked questions
What is testicular cancer?
Testicular cancer occurs when abnormal cells grow uncontrollably in the testicles (testes).
What are the symptoms of testicular cancer?
The symptoms of testicular cancer include: a painless lump or swelling in a testicle; a heavy-feeling scrotum; a testicle that feels hard or rough-textured; ache in the affected testicle, or lower abdomen, and; enlarged or tender breast tissue.
What causes testicular cancer?
The cause of testicular cancer, as with other cancers, is damage to cellular DNA. This damage results in uncontrolled cell growth, which leads to the formation of a tumor.
How is testicular cancer diagnosed?
A tentative diagnosis is made from a physical examination, blood tests and scans, such as ultrasound and CTs. A definitive diagnosis can only be made with the surgical removal of the affected testicle.
How is testicular cancer treated?
If detected before it has spread outside the testes, testicular cancer can be treated with surgical removal of the testes. If it has spread, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and additional surgery may be needed.
Can testicular cancer be cured?
If it is caught before it has spread outside of the testicle, testicular cancer can be cured by surgically removing the affected testicle. However, there is no guarantee the cancer will not develop later in the other testicle.
What increases the chances of developing testicular cancer?
Risk factors for testicular cancer include: undescended testes (cryptorchidism) - this increases the cancer risk, especially if it is not corrected by childhood; family history - having a brother or father with testicular cancer; …
What is the outlook for testicular cancer?
Prognosis of testicular cancer varies according to its type and stage, but it is generally very good. In Australia, as of 2010, the overall five-year survival rate for testicular cancer at the point of diagnosis is 98%. For those who survive the …
Are there different types of testicular cancer?
Testicular cancer can be categorized based upon the type of cell it originates from. The types of testicular cancer include germ cell tumors, such as seminomas and non-seminomas, stromal tumors and other cancers from other areas of the body …