Antisocial personality disorder is a mental health disorder that can make it difficult for a person to understand or have empathy for other people. It is characterised by manipulative, exploitative and socially irresponsible behaviour.…
What is schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder of the mind that results in a person having mixed-up thoughts and feelings. Anyone can develop schizophrenia, but it generally appears in the late teenage years, or in early adulthood. The main symptoms include delusions and hallucinations. People with schizophrenia may also become withdrawn, depressed, confused and agitated and may behave strangely. While someone with schizophrenia may find their symptoms scary, there are treatments available that can help an affected person lead a normal life.
Signs and symptoms
There are many different symptoms that are associated with schizophrenia. They generally start to appear during the later teenage years or early adulthood. The symptoms of schizophrenia can be grouped into three different categories: positive, negative and cognitive symptoms.
Positive symptoms are also known as psychotic symptoms. They include behaviors and feelings that are not normally present in healthy people. Positive symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, disordered thoughts and disorganized behavior.
A person with schizophrenia may have delusions, which are very strong beliefs in things that are clearly not true. For example, a person with schizophrenia may believe that aliens are trying to control their thoughts, or that the government is plotting against them. Delusions are very common in people with schizophrenia.
Some people with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations, which are experiencing sensations of things that are not real. The most common hallucination is hearing voices, but some people see or sense things that are not really there.
People with schizophrenia often have mixed-up thoughts and feelings. This can appear as jumbled speech, or random comments about different topics that are not logically connected.
Disorganized behavior may appear as though the affected person is behaving like a child, or acting silly or agitated.
People with schizophrenia may also have difficulty showing emotion, or may not behave normally in social situations. These are sometimes referred to as negative symptoms. People with negative symptoms may not take care of themselves, or have lack of motivation.
A person with schizophrenia may also experience problems with their thought processes, which are referred to as cognitive symptoms. These include:
- Difficulty paying attention or understanding simple things;
- Problems with memory, and;
- Difficulty processing information.
Not everyone who is affected by schizophrenia experiences all of these symptoms. Some of the symptoms may appear and disappear over time.
Schizophrenia can be grouped into different types, depending on the displayed symptoms and behaviors. The most common types of schizophrenia include:
People with paranoid schizophrenia may experience delusions or have hallucinations, such as hearing voices. People with this type of schizophrenia may be very suspicious and argumentative, or feel anxious. With treatment, this type of schizophrenia usually offers the best hope for improvement.
People with disorganized schizophrenia have very mixed-up thoughts and may not be able to express their emotions properly. This type of behavior can make everyday life difficult and is harder to manage than paranoid schizophrenia.
People with catatonic schizophrenia may show extreme behaviors, ranging from being completely still and not speaking for hours, which is known as catatonia, or being very hyperactive. This is not a very common type of schizophrenia. In severe cases, people with this type of schizophrenia may need help to take care of themselves.
People with undifferentiated schizophrenia display symptoms of the other types of schizophrenia. This is the most common type of schizophrenia, as many people who have the schizophrenia tend to experience a range of symptoms, which can change over time.
Causes and risk factors
The exact cause of schizophrenia is not known. While anyone can develop schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop the condition if you:
- Have a close family member with the condition;
- Have older parents;
- Are exposed to certain viruses or malnutrition before birth, and;
- Use drugs such as cannabis and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).
Methods for diagnosis
The diagnosis of schizophrenia will usually be made by a psychiatrist after asking specific questions and from your medical history. If your doctor suspects that you have schizophrenia, they may conduct some tests to rule out other conditions that could be causing your symptoms. This may include a blood test, or take images of your brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or a computerized tomography (CT) scan.
As there is no specific test that can confirm schizophrenia, a diagnosis is usually made on the basis of symptoms. People diagnosed with schizophrenia will typically have at least two of the following symptoms that last for a period of six months or longer:
- Disorganized behavior;
- Disorganized speech;
- Social withdrawal;
- Memory problems, and;
- Suicidal thoughts and self-harm.
Types of treatment
If you have schizophrenia, it is likely that you will need lifelong treatment to keep your symptoms under control. The most effective treatment is usually a combination of medication, psychosocial treatments and self-help resources.
Some antipsychotic medications, such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine, may be prescribed if you are experiencing delusions or hallucinations, while other antipsychotics, such as clozapine or amisulpride, may be prescribed to treat symptoms including social withdrawal and difficulty expressing emotions. Other commonly used antipsychotic medications include risperidone and quetiapine.
Antipsychotic medications may also be prescribed to manage the condition in the long-term and prevent symptoms from returning. For individuals with symptoms that are particularly difficult to manage and/or have suicidal thoughts, a particular antipsychotic medication called clozapine may be trialed.
All antipsychotics are used cautiously, given the potential for side effects. These include movement disorders resembling Parkinson's disease (known as extrapyramidal symptoms), weight gain and metabolic syndrome, and heart disease (which is further increased by the high incidence of cigarette smoking among individuals with schizophrenia). Clozapine has the potential for other side effects, such as lowering the white cell count and increasing the risk of serious infections (known as agranulocytosis), and causing heart failure. Prior to commencing antipsychotic medications, and as part of ongoing monitoring, your doctor will conduct various tests, such as weight and waist circumference measurements, examination of the nerves, blood tests, electrocardiography (ECG) and occasionally echocardiography. These tests are used to identify side effects early and allow change in medication to prevent long-term complications.
In addition to taking medication, some people with schizophrenia may benefit from psychosocial treatments to help them overcome problems with motivation, day-to-day activities, relationships and communicating. Psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia include:
Individual psychotherapy, which is sometimes referred to as 'talking therapy', involves meeting regularly with a therapist to discuss your thoughts and feelings and any problems that you may be having. Talking about your symptoms may help in telling the difference between what is real and what is not.
There are rehabilitation programs available for people with schizophrenia. These programs are designed to help people affected by the condition to find a job, manage their money and teach them how to interact with people.
People with schizophrenia generally make a better recovery with support from family or friends. There are services available to support and educate family and friends caring for someone with schizophrenia. For example, these services may teach family members why it is important that their loved one takes their prescribed medications and how to provide a safe and caring environment.
If left untreated, schizophrenia can affect many aspects of everyday life and make it difficult to function normally. People with schizophrenia may also develop violent behavior and depression, which can often lead to family conflicts and difficulty with keeping a job.
The outlook for people with schizophrenia is improving. Although there is no cure, there are treatments available that are effective at reducing the symptoms. Generally, the earlier the condition is diagnosed and treated, the better the outcome. Many people with the disease improve enough to lead normal lives in their communities.
There is no exact way to prevent schizophrenia. Recognizing the condition and getting treatment early may help to control the symptoms before they become too serious. If you have an increased risk of schizophrenia, avoiding illegal drug use, reducing stress, getting enough sleep and starting treatment as soon as possible may help minimize symptoms, or prevent them from becoming worse.