Cholera is an infectious disease that causes severe diarrhoea. It is usually acquired by consuming contaminated food or water during travel to areas where cholera is common. The greatest danger is the dehydration diarrhoea causes. Following some advice can help prevent this condition.…
What is diphtheria?
Diphtheria is an illness caused by infection with Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria. The bacteria infect and multiply in the airways, releasing a dangerous toxin that may cause damage to major organs of the body.
Diphtheria is a dangerous condition and can be fatal in about 5-10% of cases.    An effective vaccine against diphtheria has dramatically reduced infection and death rates from the disease since its introduction, making diphtheria a rare disease in many countries.
Diphtheria is caused by infection with Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria, which are spread via millions of tiny droplets, each containing many bacteria, that are sneezed or coughed into the air by an infected person. If a droplet enters your nose or mouth, you may then become infected with the bacteria.
The bacteria infect the airways and multiply there, forming a grey-colored membrane that grows from the tonsils to the throat, and sometimes reaches the nose. The bacteria also release a dangerous toxin.
Signs and symptoms
Some people show little or no symptoms after being infected. When diphtheria symptoms do show up, they usually begin 2-5 days after the infection, and can include:
- Fever and chills;
- Bluish skin color;
- Breathing difficulties;
- Barking cough;
- Swollen lymph nodes;
- Sore throat and painful swallowing;
- Runny nose, and;
- A grey-colored membrane at the back of the throat and tongue.
Diphtheria bacteria can also infect the skin, causing red, inflamed sores with patches of greyish skin around them. This condition, known as cutaneous diphtheria, is more common in warm, tropical climates.
People at risk of catching diphtheria can include:
- Unvaccinated people;
- People living or travelling to a country where diphtheria is found, including Eastern Europe, Russia and South-East Asia;
- People living in crowded or other highly unhygienic conditions, and;
- People suffering from a condition that weakens the immune system.
Methods for diagnosis
Your doctor will make an initial diagnosis of diphtheria based on your symptoms. They will also take samples from your nose or throat (swab sample) and/or from any skin lesions you may have, and send the samples off for laboratory testing.
Types of treatment
Treatment of diphtheria needs to be immediate. Because the diphtheria toxin can cause damage quickly, treatment will often start before a final diagnosis is made.
If your doctor suspects diphtheria, you will be given a shot of antitoxin, a substance that can neutralize the diphtheria toxin and make it harmless.
In order to treat the diphtheria bacteria, you will be given a course of antibiotics.
In order to help the body recuperate and keep it out of danger, you may receive supportive treatment that can include:
- Removal of the grey membrane from the throat;
- Intubation - insertion of a breathing tube to prevent blocking of the airways, and;
- Electrocardiography of the heart to detect any irregularities in heart function.
People suspected of having diphtheria are placed in isolation for a few weeks until there is no danger of them infecting other people.
The main complications of diphtheria are inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis) and the grey membrane in the throat growing and blocking the airways, both of which can be fatal. The diphtheria toxin can also cause brain damage.
Other complications of diphtheria can include:
There is an effective diphtheria vaccine. It is a part of the regular immunization schedule in many countries and is often given as part of the diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) combined vaccine.
Adults over 50 years of age are encouraged to receive another dose to boost waning immunity to the disease.
People who have been exposed to a person infected with diphtheria may receive antibiotic treatment to prevent being infected themselves.
- Diphtheria. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed 25 July 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/dip.pdf
- Anima H. Malay M. Santanu H. et al. (2008) A study on determinants of occurrence of complications and fatality among diphtheria cases admitted to ID & BG Hospital of Kolkata. The Journal of Communicable Diseases 40:53–58.
- Shetty N. Tang J.W. and Andrews J. (eds) (2009) Infectious disease: pathogenesis prevention and case studies (1st edition). London: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Anima H. Malay M. Santanu H. et al. (2008). A study on determinants of occurrence of complications and fatality among diphtheria cases admitted to ID & BG Hospital of Kolkata. The Journal of Communicable Diseases 40: 5358.
- Better Health Channel Site Search. Accessed 24 July 2014 from http://www2.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhsitesearch/index?start=0&searchtext=diphtheria&SearchTop=Search
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- Diagnosis and treatment of diphtheria. Accessed 24 July 2014 from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-diphtheria?source=search_result&search=diphtheria&selectedTitle=1%7E150
- Diphtheria. Accessed 24 July 2014 from https://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/diphtheria/fact_sheet.htm
- Diphtheria - Blue Book - Department of Health Victoria Australia. instructional. Accessed 24 July 2014 from http://ideas.health.vic.gov.au/bluebook/diphtheria.asp
- Diphtheria - dip.pdf. Accessed 25 July 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/dip.pdf
- Diphtheria: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Accessed 24 July 2014 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001608.htm
- Nandini Shetty Julian W Tang Julie Andrews. (2009). Infectious Disease: Pathogenesis Prevention and Case Studies (1st ed.). Wiley-Blackwell.
FAQ Frequently asked questions
What are the symptoms of diphtheria?
Diphtheria symptoms show up one to 10 days after the infection and can include fever and chills, bluish skin color, breathing difficulties, barking cough, drooling, hoarseness, swollen lymph nodes, a sore throat, painful swallowing, a runny nose and a …
What causes diphtheria?
Diphtheria is an illness caused by infection with Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria. The bacteria infect the airways and multiply there, and release a dangerous toxin that may cause damage to major organs of the body.
Who gets diphtheria?
Anyone can get diphtheria. People at increased risk are unvaccinated people, children, people in areas where the disease is still found and people with weakened immune systems.
How is diphtheria diagnosed?
Diphtheria is initially diagnosed by the symptoms. A final diagnosis is made by testing throat swabs and/or skin samples.
How is diphtheria treated?
Diphtheria is treated with diphtheria antitoxin to neutralize the toxin and with antibiotics to get rid of the bacteria.
How is diphtheria spread?
Diphtheria is spread by droplets spread into the air by sneezing and coughing.