Contact dermatitis is inflammation of the skin caused by direct contact with an irritant or something that induces an allergic reaction. It commonly presents as a red, itchy skin rash usually on the hands or face. Avoiding the cause once identified can prevent it happening it the future.…
What is athlete's foot?
Athlete's foot, or tinea pedis, is a common fungal infection of the foot caused by a group of fungi called dermatophytes (also known as ringworm) that colonise the skin. It is a contagious condition that can be spread by direct or indirect contact with the infected skin.
Athlete's foot is caused by a group of fungi called dermatophytes. They use keratin, a component of skin, as an energy source. The severity of your response depends on the species and strain of dermatophyte causing the infection.
Risk factors for athlete's foot include:
- Damp, humid conditions, such as wearing damp socks;
- Walking barefoot in public areas such as locker rooms and communal showers or pools;
- Close contact with an infected person or animal;
- Sweaty feet confined in tight shoes, and;
- Having a weakened immune system.
Signs and symptoms
In athlete's foot, itchy blisters containing a clear fluid appear, usually between the toes. Other presentations of athlete's foot include:
- Pustules or blisters on the sides of the feet (caused by Tinea intrerdigitale);
- Ringworm-like patches on the top of the foot;
- Dry, patchy scales on the sole of the foot (chronic hyperkeratotic tinea), and;
- Dry, patchy scales on the whole of the sole, heel and sides of the foot (extensive hyperkeratotic tinea, usually caused by Tinea rubrum).
Methods for diagnosis
Potassium hydroxide exam
A scraping of your skin from the affected area is added to potassium hydroxide (KOH) and examined under a microscope. KOH destroys non-fungal cells, making it easier to see if any fungal cells are present.
A skin biopsy is performed only when other skin infections have to be ruled out.
Types of treatment
Athlete's foot is treated with antifungal creams such as ketoconazole and terbinafine that are applied directly to the affected area. Oral antifungal medications such as fluconazole are used for infections that do not respond well to topical cream. Treatment for some time after symptoms have subsided is needed to prevent the tinea's return.
Antifungal side effects
Oral antifungal medications can cause nausea and liver damage if used for a prolonged period of time. Antifungals applied to the skin can cause itching and a burning sensation.
Tinea spreads easily to other parts of the body. It can also result in breaks in the skin that cause permanent scarring, or lead to bacterial infections.
Although athlete's foot can usually be cured, it is common for it to come back. If athlete's foot keeps recurring, it is possible the fungus is present on another part of your body that you have not been treating, particularly under the nails.
Maintaining good hygiene by washing and drying properly, washing linen and towels in hot water and not sharing them with others can help prevent the spread of athlete's foot. You can reduce your risk of infection, and infection of others, by not walking barefoot in public showers or spaces such as gyms and pools.