What is testicular cancer?
Testicular cancer occurs when abnormal cells grow uncontrollably in the testicles (testes).
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The symptoms of testicular cancer include: a painless lump or swelling in a testicle; a heavy-feeling scrotum; a testicle that feels hard or rough-textured; ache in the affected testicle, or lower abdomen, and; enlarged or tender breast tissue.
The cause of testicular cancer, as with other cancers, is damage to cellular DNA. This damage results in uncontrolled cell growth, which leads to the formation of a tumour.
A tentative diagnosis is made from a physical examination, blood tests and scans, such as ultrasound and CTs. A definitive diagnosis can only be made with the surgical removal of the affected testicle.
If detected before it has spread outside the testes, testicular cancer can be treated with surgical removal of the testes. If it has spread, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and additional surgery may be needed.
If it is caught before it has spread outside of the testicle, testicular cancer can be cured by surgically removing the affected testicle. However, there is no guarantee the cancer will not develop later in the other testicle.
Risk factors for testicular cancer include: undescended testes (cryptorchidism) - this increases the cancer risk, especially if it is not corrected by childhood; family history - having a brother or father with testicular cancer; …
Prognosis of testicular cancer varies according to its type and stage, but it is generally very good. In Australia, as of 2010, the overall five-year survival rate for testicular cancer at the point of diagnosis is 98%. For those who survive the …
Testicular cancer can be categorised based upon the type of cell it originates from. The types of testicular cancer include germ cell tumours, such as seminomas and non-seminomas, stromal tumours and other cancers from other areas of the body …